OpenVPN and VRFs

Using VRFs on Linux enables a whole new set of network setups.

As described in the previous post about VRFs on Linux, VRFs allow to isolate different interfaces at layer 3. In the Freifunk Hochstift network we chose to consider the main or default VRF as the internal network and move any internet facing interfaces into an external VRF. Chosing this concept allows, to safely contain traffic within the internal network and only at  designated border routers leak eligible traffic into the internet.

In an distributed environment like the Freifunk Hochstift network, it is inevitable to connect different islands using VPN tunnels over the Internet. This could be done by the means of GRE tunnels as shown in the previous article about the border routers, or by means of encrypted VPNs like OpenVPN, IPsec or Wireguard. As the old infrastructure quite heavily relied on OpenVPN tunnels, and they worked quite well, the new setup should keep this building block in place.

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(Vlan-aware) Bridges on Linux

Lately I’ve had some conversations about how Linux sucks at bridging tagged VLANs into VMs, which just isn’t true anymore.

With recent Kernels Linux bridges have become vlan-aware and now allow configuring any bridge port like a port of any decent network switch with respect to 802.1q VLANS. A port can present a VLAN as untagged traffic as well as a number of VLANs in tagged mode. As can be expected, SVIs can be configured as vlan interfaces of a bridge, too.

The old brctl utility has been integrated within the iproute suite as part of of ip link. The commands map as follows:

brctl addbr br0
ip link add br0 type bridge
    [ forward_delay FORWARD_DELAY ]
    [ vlan_filtering VLAN_FILTERING ]
    [ vlan_default_pvid VLAN_D_PVID ]
    [ nf_call_iptables NF_CALL_IPT ]
    [ nf_call_ip6tables NF_CALL_IP6TABLES ]
    [ nf_call_arptables NF_CALL_ARPTABLES ]

brctl addif br0 eth0
ip link set eth0 master br0

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Seriously predictable interface names – An introduction to systemd .link files

Predictable interface names are a new thing. The most common argument made is that they are not really predictable though, depending on the point of view. How about making interface names predictable and meaningful in the same time?

Most admins will probably think of udev right now, which previously was heavily used to achieve exactly that. In times of systemd the new hotness are .link files which provide similar capabilities and allow even more options to be set for interfaces.

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